Wind turbines or aerogenerators transform the kinetic energy of the wind into electrical energy (carried out by an electric generator) with no use of fuel and passing through the phase of conversion into mechanical rotation energy carried out by the blades. In the turbines, the wind flows on both blade surfaces, which have different profiles, thus creating at the upper surface a depression area with respect to the pressure on the lower surface (“lift” turbines) and determining the rotation about the hub axis. An aerogenerator requires a minimum wind speed of 3-5 m/s and delivers the nameplate capacity at a wind speed of 12-14 m/s. At high speeds, usually exceeding 25 m/s, the turbine is blocked by the braking system for safety reasons. One of the main components of a wind turbine is essentially a synchronous or asynchronous generator (with squirrel cage rotor or wound rotor – Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG)). The term doubly fed reflects the fact that the stator voltage is applied by the grid, whereas the rotor voltage is applied by the electronic converter and by means of the doubly-fed configuration, it is possible to obtain 30% speed variation above or below the synchronism speed. To highlight the wind power plant laboratory, De Lorenzo has designed a trainer where the end user can study the functions and the operations of a modern plant simulating the wind force and their effects. With this system, it is possible to perform many experiments such as relationship between the pitch control and the wind, the mechanical and electrical parameters within an induction generator, starting method of a wind system, DFIG, etc. With optional extra modules, it is also possible to perform experiments on Fault Ride Through. It is supplied with SCADA (Supervision and Control software Data Acquisition) software that communicate with all the active devices to provide real-time measurements, system status and control. It is especially designed for university students and engineering graduates.
This trainer allows the students to study the functions and operations of a modern wind power plant simulating the effects of the wind force and their effects on the plant.
This system operates through a brushless machine and the simulation software and the double‐feed asynchronous machine allows a practical and effective approach to this trainer.
The trainer has a modular structure that will grant teachers and students extreme flexibility during the study of the related topics and the performance of the experiments.
An interactive multimedia software is also available to allow performing the experiments set‐up as well as the visualization and management of the collected data through PC.
The control unit of this trainer allows controlling and operating a speed‐variable double‐feed asynchronous generator.
Thanks to this control unit it is possible to simulate and investigate the operating principles of this topic.
This control unit allows approaching and theoretically in depth analyzing the following topics:
• Operation of the double‐feed asynchronous generator;
• Integrated power switch for switching the generator online;
• Reactive and active power, frequency and voltage control;
• Mains synchronization.
This trainer is complete with the relevant software that can control and set the several operations of the system; with this software it is possible to adjust the wind speed and profile and to examine the effects on the operating functions of a real wind power plant.
Another important feature of this software is related to the possibility to control, parameterize and visualize the obtained data.